Effect of different drying techniques on the drying time and energy of blueberry


  • Tamás Antal University of Nyiregyhaza, Hungary




single- and two-stage drying, drying time, energy uptake, rehydration, blueberry


Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were dried combining vacuum, infrared, hot-air and freeze drying technologies. In this paper, examined the drying time and energy consumption of dewatering methods. The rehydration as a physical property were evaluated in dried blueberries. Combination of vacuum dried and freeze dried blueberries had higher rehydration ratio, followed by the single freeze drying, combination of hot-air drying and freeze drying, and infrared-freeze drying methods. The performance evaluation indicated that combination drying of blueberries at two-stage infrared-freeze drying with 60°C and 15 min pre-drying reduced the drying time by 53.4%, besides consuming less energy (52.9%) compared to single freeze drying. Based on the results, primarily vacuum pre-drying, infrared pre-drying and freeze finish-drying may be the economical and optimal solution for dehydrating blueberries.


Download data is not yet available.


A. Agudo, L. Cabrera, P. Amiano, E. Ardanaz, A. Barricarte, T. Berenguer, Fruit and Vegetable Intakes, Dietary Antioxidant Nutrients, and Total Mortality in Spanish Adults: Findings from the Spanish Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain), The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(6) (2007), pp. 1634-1642. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.6.1634

C.I. Nindo, J. Tanga, J.R. Powersb, P.S. Takhar, Rheological Properties of Blueberry Puree for Processing Applications, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 40 (2007), pp. 292-299.

A. Faria, J. Oliveira, P. Neves, P. Gameiro, C. Santos-Buelga, V. de Freitas, Antioxidant Properties of Prepared Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extracts, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(17) (2005), pp. 6896-6902.

L. Mayor, A. M. Sereno, Modeling Shrinkage during Convective Drying of Food Materials: A Review. Journal of Food Engineering, 61 (2004), pp. 373-386.

V. Orsat, V. Changrue, G. S V. Raghavan, Microwave Drying of Fruits and Vegetables, Stewart Postharvest Review, 6(4) (2006), pp. 1-7.

Á. Calín-Sánchez, L. Lipan, M. Cano-Lamadrid, A. Kharaghani, K. Masztalerz, Á. A. Carbonell-Barrachina, A. Figiel, Comparison of Traditional and Novel Drying Techniques and its Effect on Quality of Fruits, Vegetables and Aromatic Herbs, Foods, 9(9) (2020), e1261. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091261

F. Dujmic´, M. Brncˇic´, S. Karlovic´ T. Bosiljkov, D. Ježek, B. Tripalo, I. Mofardin, Ultrasound-Assisted Infrared Drying of Pear Slices: Textural Issues, Journal of Food Process Engineering, 36 (2013), pp. 397-406. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12006

V. R. Sagar, S. P. Kumar, Recent Advances in Drying and Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables: a Review, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(1) (2010), pp. 15-26.

C. Ratti, Hot Air and Freeze-Drying of High-Values Foods: a Review, Journal of Food Engineering, 49 (2001), pp. 311-319.

J. P. George, A. K. Datta, Development and Validation of Heat and Mass Transfer Models for Freeze-Drying of Vegetable Slihttps://doi.org/ces, Journal of Food Engineering, 52 (2002), pp. 89-93.

L. Huang, M. Zhang, L. Wang, A. S. Mujumdar, D. Sun, Influence of Combination Drying Methods on Composition, Texture, Aroma and Microstructure of Apple Slices. LWT-Food Science Technology, 47(1) (2012), pp. 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.12.009

Q. Wei, J. Huang, Z. Zhang, D. Lia, C. Liu, Y. Xiao, C. Lagnika, M. Zhang, Effects of Different Combined Drying Methods on Drying Uniformity and Quality of Dried Taro Slices, Drying Technology, 37(3) (2019), pp. 322-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2018.1445639

S. M. Demarchi, N. A. Quintero Ruiz, A. Concellón, S. A. Giner, Effect of Temperature on Hot-Air Drying Rate and on Retention of Antioxidant Capacity in Apple Leathers, Food and Bioproducts Processing, 91(4) (2013), pp. 310-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2012.11.008

E. I. Mejia-Meza, J. A. Yánez, C. M. Remsberg, N. M. Davies, B. Rasco, F. Younce, C. Clary, Improving Nutritional Value of Dried Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Combining Microwave-Vacuum, Hot-Air Drying and Freeze Drying Technologies, International Journal of Food Engineering, 4(6) (2008), pp. 10-19.

J. M. Castagnini, N. Betoret, E. Betoret, P. Fito, Vacuum impregnation and air drying temperature effect on individual anthocyanins and antiradical capacity of blueberry juice included into an apple matrix, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 64 (2015) pp. 1289-1296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.06.044

A. Reyes, A. Evseev, A. Mahn, V. Bubnovich, R. Bustos, E. Scheuermann, Effect of Operating Conditions in Freeze-Drying on the Nutritional Properties of Blueberries, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 62(3) (2011), pp. 303-306.

A. K. Datta, H. Ni, Infrared and Hot-Air Assisted Microwave Heating of Foods for Control of Surface Moisture, Journal of Food Engineering, 51(4) (2002), pp. 355-364.

X. Wu, M. Zhang, B. Bhandari, A Novel Infrared Freeze Drying (IRFD) Technology to Lower the Energy Consumption and Keep the Quality of Cordyceps Militaris, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 54 (2019), pp. 34-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2019.03.003

J. M. Flink, Energy Analysis in Dehydration Processes, Food Technology, 31 (1977), pp. 77-84.

M. Zielinska, M. Markowski, The Influence of Microwave-Assisted Drying Techniques on the Rehydration Behavior of Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), Food Chemistry, 196 (2016), pp. 1188-1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.054

J. Dehghannya, R. Gorbani, B. Ghanbarzadeh, Shrinkage of Mirabelle Plum during Hot Air Drying as Influenced by Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration, International Journal of Food Properties, 19 (2016), pp. 1093-1103.

N. Hafezi, M. J. Sheikhdavoodi, S. M. Sajadiye, The Effect of Drying Kinetic on Shrinkage and Colour of Potato Slices in the Vacuum-Infrared Drying Method, International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 4 (1) (2015), pp. 24-31.

G. Rajkumar, S. Shanmugam, M. de S. Galvâo, M. T. S. L. Neta, R. D. D. Sandes, A. S. Mujumdar, N. Narain, Comparative Evaluation of Physical Properties and Aroma Profile of Carrot Slices Subjected to Hot Air and Freeze Drying, Drying Technology, 35(6) (2017), pp. 699-708. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2016.1206925

Z. W. Cui, C. Y. Li, C. F. Song, Y. Song, Combined Microwave-Vacuum and Freeze Drying of Carrot and Apple Chips, Drying Technology, 26(12) (2008), pp. 1517-1523. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373930802463960




How to Cite

Antal, T. (2021). Effect of different drying techniques on the drying time and energy of blueberry. Analecta Technica Szegedinensia, 15(1), 23–30. https://doi.org/10.14232/analecta.2021.1.23-30