Static and dynamic compression load tests of conically connected, screw fixed dental abutment
Keywords:titanium implant; dynamic load; static load; conical angle, implant-abutment connection, screw loosening
The basis of the long-term success of dental implants is the mechanical stability of the implant and the superstructure anchored in it. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the conical connection in implant-abutment units, static and dynamic load tests were performed with different conical angles and various Grade 4-5 titanium implant materials. The assembled units were mounted in self-developed loading machine and in an Instron ElectroPuls E3000 fatigue machine. For static loading, the samples were loaded with a force from 0 N to 500 N in steps of 100 N. For dynamic loading, the samples were loaded for 30,000 cycles with a force of 250 ± 150 N. In case of static testing, the compression caused by the load was measured in both horizontal and vertical directions, while in the case of dynamic fatigue, only horizontal deformation was defined. In both cases, the drive-out (reverse) torque values of the fixing screws were determined after loading. No significant differences were found between the tested materials in the reverse torque after the static load, however, significant differences were shown with regards to the alterations in cone angle (p < 0.001). After dynamic loading, significant differences (p < 0.001) were also observed between the reverse torques of the fixing screw in different angles. The static and dynamic test results showed the same tendency: under the same load conditions, the conical angle value of the implant-abutment connection revealed significant differences in the loosening of the fixing screw. In summary, it is recommended to use higher conical angle connection to avoid larger deformations in lengths and diameters of the implant at the connection and essential torque reduction of the fixing screw. Our results may contribute to the understanding of the long-term success of dental implants.
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European Regional Development Fund
Grant numbers GINOP-2.2.1-15-2017-00039